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One of the common special occasion speeches occurs when a gift or award is presented. The presentation speech is much like a speech to praise. The speaker names and describes the reason for giving the gift and the criteria used in deciding who should receive it. The speaker may then describe the recipient's personal qualifications t receive the award. Then the recipient is called forward. Typically the speaker reads any inscription on the award, then hands the award to the recipient.
At that point, the recipient may elect to give a brief acceptance speech. The speaker thanks the people who gave the gift or award and the people who helped him or her achieve the goals that resulted in the presentation.
A keynote speech is a special occasion speech that sets the tone or mood for the meeting and the people attending. It is the major focus of the meeting. This type of speech is designed to create enthusiasm in the audience. To accomplish this emotional arousal the speaker must determine the theme of the speech, show how the theme is important to the speech and to the listeners, gear the speech to the common concerns of the listeners, and show a genuine interest in the topic and the audience.
After-dinner speaking takes the light approach. Speakers are expected to find the fun in some common interest of the audience. Successful after-dinner speakers often use the techniques of exaggeration, irony, parody, and reversal of values.
Step 15: Group speech
Decision-making groups are everywhere, and you will almost certainly have opportunities to participate in them. Your skill in doing so can make a significant contribution to your group's success and to your own as well. A decision-making group is any collection of three to eleven individuals who share a common problem or goal and interact with each other and are mutually dependent.
People join groups because groups collectively provide more resources than individuals and tend to be better at controlling error. Participation in groups means giving your best effort, behaving rationally, playing fair, and participating fully. These things are essential to a group. They imply that you must learn to be flexible and democratic, that you value group processes over individual enterprise, and that you plan carefully.
Leadership is an individual's ability to assess a communication situation and provide the ideas and information needed by the group. Decision-making groups need leadership in identifying and understanding problems and solutions. An effective leader knows when to focus on task concerns, when to focus on relationship issues, and when to focus on procedures.
The three most common problems that decision-making groups have to face: membership dissatisfaction, interpersonal conflict, and a phenomenon called groupthink. These problems call for effective leadership.
When tension levels are too high, it is advised to talk about the sources of the tension. When they are too low, it is advised talk about procedures. When they are just right, it is good to stay with an agenda that contributes to effective decision making.
A group usually has to report its findings, either in oral or written form, or both. The components of a report and the formats for presenting a group's thinking: (1) forum, (2) panel, ( 3 ) symposium, and ( 4) colloquium. These public formats are different from decision-making groups because they are audience centered rather than problem centered.

7.3.5  Other factors that should be considered in Delivering a speech

Studies have shown that an audience bases their judgment of the quality of a speaker as follows: Body Language: 55%, Vocal Qualities 38%, and Words 7%. Over 93% of your perception as a speaker is from factors other than what you say!
1.      Eye contact
The eyes communicate powerful cognitive messages. Presenters should not underestimate their ability to persuade an audience with their eyes. Following are tips to achieve better eye contact with an audience:
·        Mentally divide the room in 3-5 equal sections, and make eye contact with each section
·        When speaking from notes, follow these rules:
    1. Look at your notes
    2. Absorb one idea
    3. Make eye contact with individuals in the audience
    4. Speak your full idea
    5. Repeat this pattern
2.      Facial expressions
Facial expressions also communicate cognitive messages and emotions. They enhance your verbal communication by producing "feeling tone," the impression that you care about what you're saying.

The following tips will help you use facial expressions to increase your persuasiveness:
·        Smile before you begin speaking
·        Don't be either mechanical or melodramatic; act naturally
·        Think about what you're saying and react with facial expressions to match or enhance the thought

3.      Hand gestures
Hand gestures are important to emphasize words and emotions, illustrate verbal messages, or even replace verbal messages altogether.
Following are tips on using better hand gestures:
·      Keep your hands by your side or neutrally in front of you, unless you can use them to make a point.
·      Avoid doing the following with your hands:
ü  Putting them behind your back
ü  Putting them in your pockets
ü  Putting them in front of you
ü  Using them to fidget
·      Keep most gestures at chest level
·      Think about what you're saying and react with hand gestures to match or enhance your message

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