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No matter how well you prepare a presentation, problems sometimes occur. If this happens, you must improvise to salvage your presentation.
It is important that you remember the following when problems occur during your presentation:
·         Problems should be ignored, if possible
·      Extra audience attention should not be called to the problem
·      Quickly solve the problem, but if you cannot, move on
·      Avoid breaking the flow of your presentation when a problem occurs
·      If you have to delay your verbal presentation, remind the audience what you were talking about before the interruption, and then continue
Following are ways to handle specific problems that occur during presentations:

Microphone problems
·      If you experience feedback, popping noises, or distortion, you may be too close--move back
·      If the microphone problem continues, fill your lungs with air and speak without a mike

Audio-visual support problems
·      You cannot depend on audio-visual supports for presentation success and you must be prepared to proceed without them
·      If an audio-visual problem arises during your presentation, choose the path that is least distracting to the audience to correct the problem

Dropped note cards
·      Continue without them, if possible
·      If you cannot continue without them, stop, pick them up, and continue

Unfriendly audiences:
·      Answer hostile questions briefly, without becoming defensive, and then take another question
·      Address unfriendly audience members by first stressing areas of mutual agreement or understanding
·      Handle hecklers by pausing, making eye contact with the heckler, but not saying anything. Usually an audience member will address them. If this fails, ask the heckler to speak to you after your presentation is over. If you are heckled a third time, request that the heckler be removed from the room

Evaluate your presentation afterward
Once you finish presenting, evaluate yourself within 24 hours. If you have ideas on how to strengthen your material, make the changes immediately while the ideas are fresh.
If you have ideas on how to strengthen your performance, make notes and implement these ideas with your next presentation. Review any evaluations that you receive. Do not dwell on negative comments, but focus instead on your overall scores and averages in each category.

7.5 Characteristics of good speakers

·         Good organization
·         Preparation
·         Confidence
·         Responsiveness, respond to questions 
·         Clarity
·         Enthusiasm
·         Posture and appearance (Dress, hair style, shoe etc..)
·         Make clear transition
·          Good eye contact
·          Start up straight
·         Be sure every one can hear



Activity 7.2
1.      If you want to make a formal business speech, what are the steps you are going to follow to help you develop and deliver a good speech?
2.      What do you think are the qualities of good speakers?
3.      What are the main things you should learn about your audience when preparing a speech?
 
 





7.6 Summary


Dear learners, in this unit we have covered the following major points.
Ø  Speech is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. Speech is the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience. Developing a skill of speech delivery is important for business students.
Ø  Speech has three parts of a speech, which includes introduction, body and conclusion.
Ø  The most common modes of speech delivery are impromptu speech, extemporaneous speech, memorized speech, and manuscript reading.
Ø  There are different types of speech classified based on their purpose: some of these are: informative Speech, layout speech, demonstration speech, persuasive speech, recognition speech welcome speech, com memorization, farewell speech and after dinner speech.
Ø  The following are some of the basic steps that should be considered in the speech delivery process: planning your speech, develop awareness of the situation and have a listening skill, analyzing the audience, choosing the right topic, outlining and organization of the speech, organization checklist, use proper level of language, use good introduction and conclusion, deliver speech as per the plan, use audio visual when necessary, speak informatively, and persuasively. In addition to this you have to have a good eye contact, facial expressions, use proper hand gestures, and stand straight.

Ø  A good speaker is characterized by good organization, preparation, confidence, responsiveness, respond to questions, clarity, enthusiasm, posture and appearance (dress, hair style, shoe etc..), make clear transition,  good eye contact,  start up straight, and be sure every one can hear you.

7.7.Checklist


Dear student, the following points are prepared to help you check whether you have understood the important points in the unit or not. Read through them carefully and put a tick mark under ‘yes’ if you have understood it and proceed to the next unit. But for those that you put a tick under ‘No’ go back to the unit and read again until you have understood them.
                             

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