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The functions of a speech introduction are to grab the attention and interest of the listener, establish rapport between speaker and listener, orient the listeners to what they are about to hear, and set the tone for the speech.
Introductions can begin with a relevant quotation, a startling statement of fact or opinion, an illustration that points to the problem, a story that makes a point, an overview of the main ideas, or even a simple greeting. Some approaches are more difficult. It is difficult to use humor well, for instance. Similarly, a rhetorical question is a more difficult opening strategy to use than some of the others.
A conclusion should focus the thoughts and feelings of the listeners on what they heard in the speech, and it should always summarize the main ideas of the speech. Beyond that, the conclusion should provide some final, motivating impetus to the speech--some upbeat ending that lends a sense of completeness and finality to the speech. A quotation may be a useful strategy toward the end. A reference to the introduction sometimes works well. Whatever you decide, the key is to make clear to your listeners the response you want from them.
Step 9: Speech delivery
Delivering a speech effectively requires planning, rehearsal, and attention to detail. One of the impressions speakers try to convey is that the speech is extemporaneous. There are many ways of delivering speeches. Oral style is characterized by short words, repetition, concrete terms, and use of contractions. In written style, statements are longer and more complicated, and there is less repetition.
In selecting a style of delivery it is important to consider your personal skills and talents and the norms of the speaking context. There are many styles of delivery, including memorization, reading, impromptu speaking, and extemporaneous speaking.
Regardless of your style of presentation, rehearsing and practicing for the speech are important. You should practice your speech in a series of brief sessions, in different contexts, and become accustomed to your visual aids and equipment in advance. On the day you give your speech be sure to double-check the equipment and physical space, and allow extra time to make any last minute changes.
As soon as you are visible to your audience, you are creating an impression that affects your success as a speaker. While awaiting your turn to speak, look at the other speakers and try to listen to what they are saying. Try to appear confident at all times.
Follow a time line to organize suggestions about what you might do before, during, and after a speaking event to improve the effectiveness of your speaking.
The type of speaking described here has three parts: responding to an introduction, delivering the message, and exiting. Respond to the introduction quickly, with poise, and politeness. When delivering the speech, speak slowly and at your natural pitch. Remember to act naturally and keep a reasonable distance from the microphone. Facial cues, vocal cues, and body movements are critical elements in your delivery. Use your gestures naturally; it is best to stand quietly or move only for a reason. Stand beside your visual aids, and avoid distracting your audience. When you are finished, thank the host, collect your materials, and move quietly from the lectern.
Step 10: Audio Visual
Use visual aids to simplify complexity, help the audience organize your ideas, control the audience attention, help audience understand abstractions, help the audience remember, and organize your thoughts discreetly. You can use visual aids to present a problem; show solutions and benefits; and illustrate processes, procedures, and steps in a sequence.
The best visual materials are simple and accessible, and they conform to certain principles of two-dimensional design. You do not have to be an artist to select or develop visual supporting materials wisely. You cannot leave the selection and design of visual supporting materials to chance. Apply basic principles of layout and design to planning your visuals, such as the rule of thirds, using straight and curved lines to create moods, controlling eye movement with negative space, and developing effective sketches, illustrations, and lettering.
When using a visual aid, introduce it, present the visual smoothly and quietly, explain it, and then remove the visual from view so listeners can concentrate on your next point. Listeners must be able to relate to your ideas intellectually and emotionally. Visual aids are a principal means of helping them do that.
Step 11: Evidence and Argument
Your success as a speaker depends on the beliefs and values of your listeners. Your success is contingent on your listeners believing that what you have to say is credible, and that the problem or issue matters to them. These two goals, credibility and importance, are the primary reasons for supporting your ideas with evidence and sound reasoning.
A belief is a statement that may be characterized by the word is. A value is a statement characterized by the words ought or should be, or on judgmental terms such as good, beautiful, or important.
If the goal of your speech is to change beliefs or values held by the audience, use sound reasoning. If your goal is to show that your position is consistent with beliefs your audience already holds, show the connection. You can accomplish these goals by arguing from sign, cause, example, analogy, or principle.
Any evidence you use must seem to the listeners consistent with their beliefs or values. Evidence may be drawn from written and oral testimony and from things. Although a court of law may require concrete evidence of things to establish some truth, evidence generated by people, in written or verbal form, is more persuasive. Testimony may be factual ( verifiable ) or it may be opinion. In the case of opinion, the value of the evidence lies in the credibility of the source.

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