Header Ads

How can a person get a job easily



Use specific information, statistics, testimony, definition and explanation, and illustrations and examples. These forms of support can be used to achieve a variety of purposes, but the most important ones are to make the set of statements seem consistent to the listeners, and to make them important. In the final analysis, whether a listener is moved by what you say depends almost entirely on the quality of the supporting materials you use.

Step 12: Speaking Informatively
Informative speech is, essentially, a sharing experience with a primary goal of understanding. Informative speaking is a test of your ability to pass information to listeners. The basic concern of the effective informative speaker is to state ideas clearly, and to express them with limited opportunities for misunderstanding. the first goal of an informative speaker is to expand on what the audience already knows. The speaker then clarifies what is already known. An effective speaker must select a well-known topic appropriate to the audience and use techniques of clarification and support that reinforce the major ideas and make them interesting. Some common topics of informative speeches are processes or procedures, events, persons, places, definitions, concepts, and policies. Simplicity of organization, concrete and clear expression of ideas by the speaker, contribute to the success of an informative speech. Use of such forms of exposition as quotations, examples, statistics, and comparison and contrast help clarify and explain statements you make. Quotations need to be introduced, presented, and interpreted in order to be effective. Examples must be typical or representative of your argument. The use of statistics is a common way to explain or clarify what can sometimes be confusing. Statistics should be rounded off, interpreted, and should show a trend relevant to the topic. Comparison and contrast show similarities and differences between the known and unknown.
Step 13: Speaking Persuasively
 Persuasive speaking seeks some change in attitude, belief, or action through the use of information that appeals to the minds and emotions of others.
The study of persuasion has always been the study of that delicate relationship between speaker intent and message effects. Aristotle's Rhetoric was about that relationship, and so was Packard's The Hidden Persuaders.
Persuasive speaking depends on adapting to the listeners, who process information in two ways and in two sides of their brains. Thus, to achieve the desired message effects, a speaker has to provide information that appeals both to the rational and emotional sensibilities of the audience. Evidence and arguments designed to establish propositions of fact, value, and policy appeal to the rational. Supporting materials that appeal t the human needs can also be very powerful. Message strategy that involves the use of fear appeals, the use of implicit or explicit conclusions, and the management of opposing arguments helps determine the success of your presentation.
The speaker and the message, therefore, must be believable. Propositions of fact, value, and policy occur commonly in discourse. The audience must discern whether these messages are credible. Propositions of fact require a speaker to introduce enough information to convince the audience that the claim is true. A proposition of policy asks the audience to make a judgment, so the speaker must provide evidence to support a demand for action while taking the audience's preconceptions into account.
Vance Packard developed a need theory in which he described eight compelling needs. These hidden persuaders are the needs for emotional security, reassurance of worth, ego gratification, creative outlets, love objects, sense of power, roots, and immortality. It is important to construct appeals to human needs so they are ethical and logical. This involves avoiding fallacies of logic because they cause you to lose your credibility and effectiveness as a speaker.
Alan H. Monroe developed a five step pattern for organizing persuasive speeches: the attention step, the need step, the satisfaction step, the visualization step, and the action step. These patterns of thinking provide the means by which you can best organize a persuasive speech.
Knowledge of the subject, trustworthiness, personal appearance, and the extent to which an audience agrees with the speaker are all part of the speaker's credibility.
The language of persuasion includes words that appeal to both the logical and emotional needs of listeners. This clearly implies that a speaker assumes certain ethical responsibilities toward the listeners. The power to persuade is a solemn trust.
Step 14: Special occasion 
Speeches for special occasions require different approaches from other types of public presentations we have discussed. They share the need for effective and thorough preparation, knowledge of the audience, and speaker understanding of the person or the occasion. All are audience centered and your success in these settings is largely determined by the carefulness of your preparation. Speeches of introduction, keynote speeches, and speeches of tribute, including commencements and eulogies, require you to develop a set of standards of behavior or accomplishment. Your speech consists, then, of using those standards as you identify the ways the person meets or exceeds those criteria.
The speech of introduction is characterized by brevity and the presentation of basic biographical information about the speaker, such as qualifications and credentials. A successful introduction creates a picture of the total person. It is important to gather facts and background information. More than anything else, you should remember that your purpose is only to introduce the main speaker. The audience is there primarily to listen to the other person and not you.
A speech of tribute is given to recognize and praise another person's accomplishments. The speech should relate biographical information, the reason for recognition, the standards for success, and how standards for success were met.
A eulogy requires unusual speaker sensitivity because it is presented at a time of great stress for most of those in the audience, so great care must be taken to maintain the proper atmosphere. As a speaker, be careful in your selection of language and in the specific kinds of illustrations you use to show the character of the person.
Ritual situations like commencements require the speaker to fulfill the situational expectations. Remember that the audience wants to be acknowledged for their accomplishments and sacrifices. They also want to hear a promise of good fortune for graduates but only if it follows standard virtues of hard work and clean living.

No comments

Powered by Blogger.