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Goals of job interview

1.     Persuasive Speech
A persuasive speech contains information to help people make a decision. The purpose of a persuasive speech is to persuade people to change in some way. For example, it could be to change the way they think about something. Or it could be to change the way they do things. Finally, it could be to persuade the audience to do something that they do not do now. Your speech will be successful if at the end of your speech the audience is willing to make the change you suggested.
Some examples of a persuasive speech:
§  A lawyer trying to convince a jury
§  A salesclerk trying to persuade customers to buy a new product
§  A politician asking people to vote for her
§  A nurse persuading a patient to stop smoking
§  A student trying to get a friend to lend him some money
§  An environmentalist trying to get people to start thinking about the environment
2.     Other types of speech
    • Recognition speech : a type of speech delivered before an award is given to someone like employees of the year award, scholarship award etc
    • Welcome speech:
    • Com memorization
    • Farewell speech
    • After dinner speech

Activity 7.1
1.      Explain the purpose of speech?
2.      discuss the types of speech. Support your answer with examples.  

This section of the unit presents to you the processes of speech delivery. Making a nice speech is very difficult for many people, particularly for those who do not have an experience of making speech. Therefore, this section of the unit will help you develop skills of delivering speeches effectively.


7.3.4 Steps of speech Delivery

Dear learners, do you have an experience of making a formal speech? What do you think are activities expected from the speaker before, during and at the end of the speech?

The following are some of the basic steps in the speech delivery process.
Step 1: Speech Planning
Delivering a speech is an act of self-disclosure. We speak to make our feelings and attitudes known.
Your first speech may inform, demonstrate, or be a self-introduction. One of the most helpful guides to success in this first speech is to keep the purpose, development of ideas, and examples simple. It is also important to select a topic that you know well and is appropriate and adequately adapted to your audience. Your thesis statement and the major idea of your speech should provide you with direction and support your topic as you organize your presentation.

Every speech should have an introduction to grab the audience's attention and preview the main idea, a body of information to support the main idea, and a conclusion to summarize the main points and close the discussion.

In preparing for the first speech, it is advisable to begin gathering information and thinking about your topic in advance.  Choose a subject you know well and outline and organize the material simply.  Prepare a brief skeleton outline and practice your speech aloud to crystallize your ideas. Finally, approach the speaking situation with confidence, and make eye contact with your audience. Try to avoid memorizing or writing out your speech, and never apologize for your performance.
Fear of speaking in public is a common apprehension. There are many ways to overcome both its physical and psychological effects. Understanding common concerns about the first speech and being aware of some guides to success will reduce apprehension and help you become more successful in your initial public speaking activity.
Beginning speakers should remember that thorough preparation, a positive attitude, and thorough practice before presenting a speech are some of the most important elements in achieving personal success. Ultimately, we think that an audience is very accepting. If the listeners think you are trying to make contact with them, they will overlook many of the faults you see in your speaking. The most important thing, then, is to remember that your listeners are people, too. They want you to succeed!

Step 2: Awareness and Listening
The most difficult problems with listening occur in four processes: ( 1 ) sensing, ( 2 ) attending, ( 3 ) understanding, and ( 4 ) remembering. Sensory impairment and external noise contribute to listening errors. Selective perception and poor listening habits create attention problems. So do certain attitudes and needs. People find it difficult to pay attention to low-intensity messages, and also to messages that are too long.
Sometimes listeners misunderstand because they do not share the same fields of experience with the speaker. Misunderstanding also occurs when listeners can't empathize with the speaker, or when they do not use feedback opportunities wisely. Listeners who already have their minds made up can also cause misunderstandings.
Remembering problems flow from the conditions under which the original learning took place, and also from the conditions that have prevailed between the learning and the attempt to remember. These conditions are called inhibitors, and occur in three categories: ( 1 ) proactive inhibition, ( 2 ) concurrent inhibition, and ( 3 ) retroactive inhibition. The physical and emotional condition of a listener can influence what the person remembers and how quickly the person forgets. You can do a lot to improve your personal listening skills, and help your audience to avoid the most common listening problems when you are a speaker. As a listener, learn to work hard at listening. Empathize with the speaker. Give and get feedback. Put aside your mental sets, and work hard at remembering what you have heard. As a speaker, you can learn to compensate for the adverse effects of poor listening habits by reviewing the four categories of major problems in the listening model.
Finally, our advice about helping others listen more effectively is at the heart of all the remaining sections of this course. To be a better speaker is to adapt o the physical, mental, and emotional needs of your listening audience.

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