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Best job practises by yourself



our advice about helping others listen more effectively is at the heart of all the remaining sections of this course. To be a better speaker is to adapt o the physical, mental, and emotional needs of your listening audience.
Step 3: Analyzing the Audience
An audience is a collection of individuals who make choices based on their needs, wants, perceptions, and expectations. The task of the speaker is to anticipate and then adapt to those choices in order to bring the listeners to the desired response. However, the speaker cannot address remarks to each individual. A method of grouping them together into homogenous sub-groups is needed.
When you can access an audience directly it is convenient to develop a questionnaire for gathering information about the audience. When, as happens more frequently, you cannot access an audience directly, use demographic data to draw inferences about what relevant subgroups of audience members know about your subject and how they are likely to respond to your speech.
 Action continuum analysis helps you choose the specific purpose of the speech intelligently. The final step is to write a goal statement. Such goals help you discover the communication strategies that are most likely to be effective.


Step 4: Choosing the topic
Selecting the general purpose of a speech is necessary to bring your speaking ideas into focus. the general purposes of each speech are to entertain, inform, or persuade. The goal of persuasive speaking is to move your audience from a place of neutrality to your side of the action continuum. This may also involve convincing the audience to ensure the change, and then stimulating them to action.
Audience analysis is a central element for successfully choosing and narrowing topics for public communication.
Select a topic that interests you and your audience and is related to your purpose. Topic selection involves the generation of a large number of ideas through brainstorming, flexibility in thinking, and suspension of judgment. The effective speaker willingly considers the appropriateness of ideas and examines all possible associated topics before settling on one topic. Once a general topic has been identified, the narrowing process begins. Speakers must reduce the ideas to manageable size. Limiting the idea via the thesis statement is a good start to a focused and effective speech. Time, the breadth of the topic, plus the knowledge of the audience are also significant factors.
Use the valuable resource of your library or the internet to select ideas and discover supporting materials. Efficient use of the library or the internet helps you develop sources, ideas, and note cards that make your preparation process more systematic and sensible.
Step 5: Outlining and Organization
The ability to organize ideas is a principal objective of education. That objective includes the ability to design appropriate organizational patterns and to identify the organizational patterns someone else uses. Effective organization of ideas helps you determine how much to say and whether your topic is broad enough to interest and inform your audience. Good organization also makes the speech easier to follow and increases the chances that the audience gets your point. Signposts, transitional statements, and internal summaries are devices you can use to direct the listeners through the various parts of your speech.
The best-known and most frequently used organizational strategies include time patterns; spatial patterns; problem-to-solution patterns such as need-plan, plan-need, need-plan-advantages, and comparative advantages patterns; cause-to-effect patterns; the natural divisions of topics; and induction and deduction. These patterns work because each one follows a common way of thinking in our culture.
Outlines are useful tools in planning and delivering a speech. An outline provides a speaker with a framework for the development of ideas. A planning outline helps in determining the organizational sequence that makes the most sense for presenting a particular topic to a given audience. It is more detailed than the speaking outline, because it not only labels the main parts, but it also describes sub points and shows relationships between major ideas. A speaking outline assists the speaker while delivering the speech. It is much briefer than a planning outline because its purpose is only to provide cues that help the speaker stay on track during the speech.
Step 6: Organization checklist
ü  Is the purpose clear?
ü  Is the topic clearly relevant to the listener?
ü  Does the outline show a logical sequence of ideas?
ü  Are the ideas consistent and easy to follow?
ü  Are the transitions clear and powerful?
ü  Is there too much/too little information?
ü  Is there enough supporting material?
ü  Are there internal summaries?
ü  Does the conclusion restate the key ideas?
Step 7: Language
Language, by its very nature, creates problems. One of these is abstraction. In addition, language and experience are so closely intertwined that is impossible to know which ones come first. Since each speech community uses language in its own unique way, members from different speech communities have a limited ability to exchange meanings.
People think fluently in the language they use fluently. Thus, we don't always think of the problems we create when we don't define the terms we use. We know not to assume that others use words as we do, but we make that assumption anyway.
We also think in polarized terms. Without conscious awareness, we place people and events into extreme categories because of the nature of our language. But people are never purely right or wrong, good or bad. People are complex and highly variable, and the wiser choice of language makes that variability clear. Finally, English carries an allness assumption that can

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